Noun - Case and Gender - Advanced English Grammar
Hello friends today I am posting the very important part of Noun that is Case and Gender of noun (Noun – Case and Gender – Advanced English Grammar). Very important for all those who are preparing for the competitive exams like SSC and Bank exams. I hope you all would find it beneficial for your upcoming exams.
NOUN-CASES is another topic which comes under NOUN. The CASE of a noun tells us about the position of that noun in a sentence. In English there are FIVE CASES. 
They are: 
• Nominative case 
• Objective case (or Accusative case) 
• Dative case 
• Possessive case (or Genitive case) 
• Vocative case 
All these five Cases have been explained in detail below. 
Are you going as you wish in the process of learning Grammar? 
Take a breath. 
This section of Noun-Cases will simplify your process. 
1. Nominative case-
A noun is said to be in the Nominative case if it is the subject of a verb. (SUBJECT is the person or the thing who or which carries out the action of the verb in the sentence)
• Mr. Ram is an intelligent boy. 
Mr. Ram is a proper noun in Nominative case. 
• The painter paints the portraits. 
The painter is a common noun in Nominative case. 
• I am buying vegetables for my family. 
“I” is a pronoun in Nominative case. 
Note These examples carry another term “pronoun” which is a word used to represent a noun.
For example:
I, We, You, He, She, it and they are the seven pronouns.
There are only seven pronouns.
Only other variations of these seven pronouns are there.
Those variations can be used in place of the nouns.
The next one in the Noun-cases is:
2. Objective case (or Accusative case)-
Nouns or pronouns are said to be in Objective cases if they are the direct objects of verbs or if they are the objects of preposition. (Direct object is the person or the thing upon whom or upon which the action of the verb is carried out). 
• I met your sister. 
“Your sister” is in objective case. 
• The vendors sell mangoes. 
“Mangoes” is in objective case. 
• The book is on the table. 
“Table” is in objective case. 
It is object of the preposition ‘on’. 
• This is one of my policies. 
“Policies” is in objective case. 
It is object of the preposition ‘of’. 
The next one in the Noun-cases is: 
3. Dative case-
A noun is said to be in dative case if it is the Indirect object of the verb. (Indirect object of the verb is the noun for whom or for which the action of the verb is carried out). There should not be a preposition before the indirect object because in that case it will be the object of that preposition. 
• The teacher gave the students few exercises. 
“Students” is in dative case. It is the indirect object of the verb ‘give’. 
• The Postman brought me a letter. 
“Me” is in dative case. 
• Get him a pen. 
“Him” is in dative case. 
The next one in the Noun-cases is: 
4. Possessive case (Genitive case)-
A noun is said to be in possessive case, if it denotes possession or ownership. A noun or pronoun in the possessive case is governed by the noun that follows it. 
• This is your pencil. 
(“Your” is in possessive case. 
• It is our idea. 
“Our” is in possessive case. 
• John’s sister has been hospitalized. 
“John’s” is in possessive case. 
The last one in the Noun-cases is: 
5. Vocative case-
A noun or a pronoun is said to be in Vocative case if it is used to call (or to get the attention of) a person or persons. 
• Mr. Bill, students are waiting for you in the main hall. 
“Mr. Bill” is in vocative case. 
• You there, stand up. 
“You” is in vocative case. 
• Brother, a letter for you. 
“Brother” is in vocative case. 
• Chairman, all the letters are posted two days ago. 
“Chairman” is in vocative case. 
Note- The nouns do not change their forms in the Nominative and Objective cases. But few pronouns change their forms between Nominative and Objective cases.
Gender is the way which is the way to classify the nouns as masculine, feminine, common or neuter things. The “Gender” has come from the Latin word “Genus” meaning “Kind” or “Short”.
The term, Gender, is used with reference to all living things and non-living things. The living things include the animal kingdom and the plant kingdom. Human beings are the members of the animal kingdom. The living things have life. The non-livings refer to lifeless things.
Thus, there are four genders in English.
1. Masculine
The noun that refers to a man animals is said to of the masculine gender.
Ex. Boy, Bull, Dog etc.
2. Feminine
The noun that refers to a female animal is said to be of the feminine gender.
Ex. Girl, Bitch, Cow etc.
3. Common 
The noun that denotes either a man or a female animal is said to of common gender.
Ex. Student, doctor, teacher etc.
4. Neuter
The noun that refers to thing that is a member of plant kingdom or a lifeless or non-living thing is said to of neuter gender.
Ex. Pen, Book, Bench etc.
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